Aerial Survey

Aerial Survey means the survey carried out using airborne platforms and specialized instruments like aerial cameras, LiDAR, airborne geophysical instruments.

Artificial Intelligence

In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines that is used to describe machines (or computers) that mimic “cognitive” functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as “learning” and “problem solving”.

Big Data

Big Data is a field that treats ways to analyze and systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data-processing application software.

Decision Support System

It means key GI-based applications and services that provide user-required processed GI or solutions that help user to take a scientific and rational decision.

Digital Economy

Digital Economy refers to an economy that is based on digital computing technologies. Also variously referred as the Internet Economy, New Economy, or Web Economy, it is the economic activity that results from billions of everyday online connections among people, businesses, devices, data, and processes. The backbone of the Digital Economy is hyper-connectivity which means growing interconnectedness of people, organizations, and machines that results from the Internet, mobile technology and the Internet of things (IoT).

Digital Infrastructure

Digital Infrastructure is defined as the ability to store and exchange data through a centralized communication system.

Fourth Industrial Revolution

After the steam, science and digital revolutions that transformed modern society, the world is said to be entering the Fourth Industrial Revolution that is powered by the Internet of things (IoT), Big Data, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Location.

Geospatial / Spatial data

Geospatial data indicates where things are within a given coordinate system. The location may be static in the short-term (e.g., the location of a road, an earthquake event, children living in poverty), or dynamic (e.g., a moving vehicle or pedestrian, the spread of an infectious disease). Geospatial data combines location information (usually coordinates on the earth), attribute information (the characteristics of the object, event, or phenomena concerned), and often also temporal information (the time or life span at which the location and attributes exist).

Geospatial Ecosystem

Geospatial technology ecosystem comprises government or commercial sector players that include data providers, data processors and data creators, as well as data users from Earth Observation (Space, Aerial, Terrain, Sub-surface and under-water), Outdoor Positioning (GNSS and Surveying) and other data sources (sensor data, census and demography data, crowd sourced data etc).

Geospatial Technology

Technology used to acquire, manipulate, and store geographic information. The geospatial technology ecosystem is a complex entity with multiple interactive components. These technologies are broadly segmented into four categories — GNSS and Positioning, GIS and Spatial Analytics, Earth Observation and 3D Scanning. Encompassing various other technologies, these four segments are the key components of the geospatial technology ecosystem.

GI or Geographic Information

GIS or Geographical Information System means a system comprising of the infrastructure, geographical data, software for processing such data and provision of services based on geographical information, usually through visualization.


Means pictures obtained from satellites, aerial photography or ground survey using a camera or sensor and the term “Imaging” shall be construed accordingly.

Internet of Things

The Internet of things (IoT) is the extension of Internet connectivity into physical devices and everyday objects. Embedded with electronics, Internet connectivity, and other forms of hardware (such as sensors), these devices can communicate and interact with others over the Internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled.


LiDAR stands for Light Detection and Ranging, which is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure ranges (variable distances). These light pulses generate precise, three-dimensional information about the shape of the Earth and its surface characteristics.

Location-Based Services (LBS)

Denotes applications integrating geographic location (i.e., spatial coordinates) with the general notion of services. Examples of such applications include emergency services, car navigation systems, tourist tour planning, or “yellow maps” (combination of yellow pages and maps) information delivery.


Is the process of generating information in map format by processing geographical data derived from ground survey, aerial photography or from satellite images.


Is the process of colleting basic geographical data in a systematic manner either on the ground or through aerial photography using specific instruments like the Electronic Total Station (ETS), GPS devices, Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR), LiDAR, Imaging Camera and includes collection of basic non-spatial attribute data through enumeration and tabulation.

Thematic Maps

Are the specialized maps that depict the specific themes of interest to different sectors like the forest cover, land-use, soil fertility, land degradation or topographic maps on which such themes are superimposed by tagging with non-spatial attribute data.

Topographic Maps

It means the maps generated by Survey of India, which authoritatively depict the national, state, district and other administrative boundaries, elevation of the land and its cultural and physical features at an appropriate scale.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

Also known as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and more commonly known as Drones, these are essentially flying robots that can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously through software-controlled flight plans in their embedded systems, working in conjunction with onboard sensors and GPS.

Whole-of-Government Approach

Refers to the joint activities performed by diverse Ministries, Public Administrations and Public Agencies in order to provide a common solution to a particular problem or issue.

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