Case Study: Land Administration for Nagpur Municipal Corporation
The Nagpur Municipal Council (NMC) was established in 1864, with a population of 82,000 and jurisdictional area at 15.5 sq. km, which was expanded to 227.37 sq.km as per the Government Resolution dated 14th May 2013.
The key responsibility for providing Nagpur’s citizens basic urban services lies with the NMC, including water supply, sewerage, waste management, slum improvement, land use planning, construction and maintenance of internal roads, street lighting, maintenance of parks and gardens, providing primary health and education facilities, etc. NMC co-ordinates with various other government organizations like NIT, MHADA, MSRTC, the Traffic Police, MPCB, etc. for delivering these basic urban services.
It was soon identified that there was a need to link resource mobilization with spatial development planning focusing on credit enhancement mechanisms. This made the preparation of land use maps the first step towards city development.
The main objective of the project was to develop a detailed GIS Base map on a scale of 1:1,000 for entire NMC area in stereo mode. All features like Buildings, Vacant Plots, Roads (National Highways, State Highways, City Roads and Streets), Bridges (Flyovers, Railway Bridges, etc.), Railway Tracks, Parks, Gardens, Stadiums, Slums, Traffic Squares, Water Bodies (Reservoirs, River, Lake, Pond, Drainage, Canal etc), Over Head Tanks, etc. to be extracted from Aerial imagery through stereo mode.
Scope of work
The project involved Desktop study, establishing precise Ground Control Network using Dual frequency GNSS/GPS in relative static positioning method, Digital Aerial Photography ≤ 10cm GSD using fixed wing Aircraft, Geo referencing & Creation of DEM, Contour generation and \Ortho Photo, Geo Referenced Existing Land Use Map, Geo referenced Land Records System, Development & installation of EGIS system, Creation of Base map for entire NMC and Training.
Data collected during preparation of Base map was used for planning purpose of all infrastructure projects for NMC and other government departments. Maps/ data set/ information was prepared for existing Utility (such as Road, Railway, HT & LT Power lines, OFC cable etc.) or existing water bodies, existing structures, slum, religious structures, industrial area, height of structures etc.
The collected data was also used for slope analysis and finding out catchment area of given location/ spot/ village/ river etc. with the help of 0.5m contours and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated. It was also useful for analysis of structure density, type of structures, use of structure, area under structure as per its use area under defense, industry etc. The ground surveys and collected attribute information were linked to the Final Base Map to create a comprehensive GIS database.
The Generation of Spatial Database Infrastructure includes the Inception Report, Ground Control Network (.shp), Aerial Imagery (Geo Tiff), Geo referencing & Creation of DEM \ Ortho Photo for entire NMC region, Index Plan, Key Plan on 1:50,000 Scale, Detailed Survey Plan on 1:5000 Scale, Existing Land Use Plan on 1:5000 Scale, Existing Land Use Report, Geo Referenced Existing Land Use Map & Report, Geo referenced Land Records System, Base map for entire NMC region, Development & installation of GIS software, All created Maps and Training.
Geo Referencing, DEM creation, Contours, Ortho-Photo generation
Geo Referencing: All distributed ground controls used for Geo referencing of Aerial imagery, made with polynomial order 2 with suitable transformation method.
DEM Compilation: All photogrammetric Digital Elevation Model (DEM) collection carried out using Z/I ImageStation to meet the ortho photo standards. IIC converted final DEM (after the QA/QC steps) into 3D ASCII XYZ format. Cell sizes were 20m for 10m for rural and urban respectively.
Surface/DEM Generation: Surface generated using final DTM used for orthophoto and DEM generation.
Pre-Processing: Project setup to be done to define coordinate system information, rotation angle, ISPM project and its Orthorectification settings, seamlines, mosaic parameters etc.
Orthorectification: Performed to correct relief and tilt errors. Outputs from this task are ortho-photographs.
Feature Extraction: Digital Aerial imagery analysed under high zoom to identify features listed in data model using heads on digitization technique. All features extracted from imagery through on screen / Heads on digitization technique.
The respective department’s surveyed datasets are made available to internal and external stakeholders of NMC through the EGIS GeoPortal Solution via Web, Mobile, Tablets Access.
The above diagram depicts the overall proposed logical technical Solution architecture for NMC EGIS web-enabled GeoPortal System with Mobile Client access. It displays accurate Surveyed outputs in various Spatial layers and supporting Integrations with current IT systems, Data and Spatial systems in scope of EGIS Project.
Layer 1: Outputs of all approved spatial surveyed datasets, collection of any/all spatial datasets, access to documents from servers, integration of existing Systems in NMC with integration to both spatial and non-spatial information of respective land systems.
Layer 2: Application Data and Integration Layer – usage of verified Spatial Data files and approved for usage in the geoportal solution.
Layer 3: Data Storage Layer – centralized distributed storage where PostgreSQl PostGIS RDBMS server is proposed to be used for storing both spatial and non-spatial data and the centralized file storage server.
Layer 4: Data Analytics Layer – static and dynamic report generation and dynamic dashboard with statistical computations as needed for the Nagpur NMC EGIS Geo Portal Solution.
Layer 5: Business Layer – Geospatial server and QGIS server-side computational layer. Both spatial and non-spatial functionality like User, Roles, Security single sign on, spatial layers access, OGC compliant access of attributes, etc. are supported in this server-side layer.
Layer 6 and Layer 7: Presentation Actual UI Access Layers. Users can login, query and retrieve the respective datasets from catalogue for spatial and non-spatial views, and export the dataset into required formats where needed.
- Pre-Flight Panelling: Performed to save time and costs of aerial mapping and surveying for saving time and costs. Panels visible in photographs were reduced, runtime errors nullified, nearly 100% accurate datasets and permanent markers obtained.
- Ground Control Points: Obtaining GCPs usually consumes a lot of time, affecting final project delivery. A simplified technique was used instead for establishing GCPs in project areas while obtaining permissions.
- Base Map preparation: Tasks and requests with NMC’s requirements kept in mind, rather than creating a generic Base map.
- Tool Development: Focus was on automation of work and avoiding manual errors. Data Migration played an important role for transferring of data into the Database.
- Auto Migration of data into the database
- Auto QC using spatial tools
- Robust Architecture: Focus on website efficiency. Highly scalable and reliable web-portal established that was flexible, easily integrable with third-party.
- Knowledge Transfer: Multiple levels of knowledge transfer to NMC staff conducted for better understanding of the usage and process of the application, making them become self-sustainable.
- Project Management: Tools developed to monitor online progress of the application using Mobile application for easy navigation access by citizens as well.